Entrepreneurial Motivation of Gen-Y Students: Necessity or Opportunity Driven?

Motivasi Keusahawanan Gen-Y: Berpandukan Keperluan atau Peluang?

Authors

  • Ummu Kolsome Farouk
  • Kavita Chirara

Keywords:

Entrepreneurial Motivation, Entrepreneurship, Higher Learning Institutions, Higher Education Policies, Entrepreneurship Education

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to determine whether university students' entrepreneurial motivations were more necessity-driven or opportunity-driven in nature, and to provide a possible profiling of future opportunity-driven or necessity-driven type entrepreneurs based on personality related traits or contextual factors. Using data from a survey of 160 business and engineering students from a private university in Malaysia, the study empirically examined the relationships between both personality traits (need for achievement, self-efficacy, locus of control) and contextual related variables (social norms, university entrepreneurial environment), and university students' perceived entrepreneurial motivations. Respondents to the survey perceived their opportunity-driven motivation (mean = 3.90) to be higher than their perceived necessity-driven motivation (mean = 3.05). Findings revealed that both self-efficacy and social norms had significant positive relationships with opportunity-driven motivation, with self-efficacy having a stronger relationship with it; whereas, only social norms had a significant positive relationship with necessity-driven motivation. Furthermore, students' perceived opportunity-driven motivation was higher among males, and amongst students whose role models were business personalities; whereas, students' perceived necessity-driven motivation was highest among those aged between 21-23 years old. This study provides suggestions on how students' perceived inclinations towards opportunity-driven type entrepreneurship can be fostered more effectively at this private university, through a multidimensional entrepreneurship education curriculum that gives due weight to the inherent tensions embedded within the generational traits of Gen Y students, and their preferred mode of learning.

Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk menentukan sama ada motivasi keusahawanan pelajar di universiti lebih bersifat keutamaan atau berpandukan peluang, dan untuk menyediakan kemungkinan profil usahawan jenis yang didorong peluang atau keperluan berdasarkan masa depan berdasarkan sifat-sifat yang berkaitan dengan keperibadian atau kontekstual faktor. Dengan menggunakan data daripada tinjauan 160 pelajar perniagaan dan kejuruteraan dari sebuah universiti swasta di Malaysia, kajian ini secara empirik mengupas hubungan antara kedua-dua ciri keperibadian (keperluan untuk pencapaian, keberkesanan diri, lokus kawalan) dan pembolehubah berkaitan kontekstual (norma sosial, universiti persekitaran keusahawanan), dan motivasi keusahawanan pelajar di universiti. Responden kepada kaji selidik itu merasakan motivasi yang didorong oleh peluang mereka (min = 3.90) menjadi lebih tinggi dari motivasi yang didorong oleh keperluan mereka (min = 3.05). Penemuan menunjukkan bahawa kedua-dua keberkesanan diri dan norma sosial mempunyai hubungan positif yang signifikan dengan motivasi berpandukan peluang, dengan keberkesanan diri mempunyai hubungan yang lebih kuat dengannya; sedangkan hanya norma sosial yang mempunyai hubungan positif yang signifikan dengan motivasi yang didorong oleh keperluan. Tambahan pula, motivasi yang didorong oleh pelajar adalah motivasi yang lebih tinggi di kalangan lelaki, dan di kalangan pelajar yang model peranannya adalah personaliti perniagaan; sedangkan motivasi yang didorong oleh motivasi pelajar adalah yang tertinggi di antara mereka yang berumur antara 21-23 tahun. Kajian ini memberi cadangan tentang bagaimana kecenderungan yang dialami oleh para pelajar terhadap keusahawanan jenis yang berpandukan peluang boleh dipupuk dengan lebih berkesan di universiti swasta ini, melalui kurikulum pendidikan keusahawanan multidimensi yang memberi berat kepada ketegangan yang wujud dalam sifat-sifat generasi pelajar Gen Y, dan kaedah pembelajaran pilihan mereka.

 

 

 

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Published

2018-06-30

How to Cite

Farouk , U. K., & Chirara, K. . (2018). Entrepreneurial Motivation of Gen-Y Students: Necessity or Opportunity Driven? Motivasi Keusahawanan Gen-Y: Berpandukan Keperluan atau Peluang?. Journal of Management and Muamalah , 8(1), 17-42. Retrieved from https://jmm.kuis.edu.my/index.php/jurnal/article/view/67