The Relationship between HRM Practices and Academic Staff Job Engagement: The Role of Leader-Member Exchange as Moderator

Hubungan antara Amalan Pengurusan Sumber Manusia dengan Penglibatan Kerja Staf Akademik: Peranan Pertukaran Ketua-Ahli sebagai Moderator

Authors

  • Alawiyah Tengah KUIS

Keywords:

job engagement, human resource management practices, leader-member exchange, academic staff, higher learning institutions

Abstract

Increasingly demanding global economic environment and transformation of the Malaysian Higher Education system, HEI's performance and reputation are crucial. The meaning that academic work has shifted due to these challenges and the academic staff is carrying out more complex work and fulfilling the university's goals. It has to be highlighted that the combination of the high workloads and the requirement to fulfil the university's goals put a lot of pressure on the academic staff as the core workforce at HEIs and who are not satisfied display less engagement with their job. Past studies have shown that human resource management practices (HRM practices) and leader-member exchange impact job engagement. However, it is still unclear what the causative factors explain the relationship, especially in the education sector in Malaysia. Hence, this study investigates the relationship between HRM practices, leader-member exchange, and job engagement of academic staff in Malaysian private universities. This study also examines the role of leader-member exchange as a moderator in the relationship between HRM practices and job engagement. The online survey was conducted at two private universities with 196 full-time academic staff as the study respondents, and the hypotheses were tested using regression analysis. Results showed a significant relationship between HRM practices, leader-member exchange, and job engagement. Other findings showed that leader-member exchange significantly moderated the relationship between HRM practices and job engagement of academic staff. This study contributes immensely to the current literature on the influence of HRM practices and leader-member exchange on employee engagement, particularly in the Malaysian context. These findings will be valuable to human resource personnel and university management in planning employee engagement initiatives.

Persekitaran ekonomi global yang semakin meningkat permintaannya dan transformasi sistem Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia melibatkan prestasi dan reputasi Institusi Pengajian Tinggi (IPT) adalah penting. Ini bermaksud bidang kerja akademik telah beralih disebabkan oleh cabaran ini, dan staf akademik menjalankan kerja yang lebih kompleks bagi memenuhi matlamat universiti. Perlu diketengahkan bahawa gabungan beban kerja yang tinggi dan keperluan untuk memenuhi matlamat universiti memberi banyak tekanan kepada staf akademik sebagai tenaga kerja teras di IPT dan bagi yang tidak berpuas hati akan menunjukkan kurang penglibatan dengan tugas mereka. Kajian lepas menunjukkan bahawa amalan pengurusan sumber manusia (PSM) dan pertukaran pemimpin-ahli memberi kesan kepada penglibatan kerja. Namun, masih tidak jelas apakah faktor penyebab yang menjelaskan hubungan tersebut terutama dalam sektor pendidikan di Malaysia. Oleh itu, kajian ini menyiasat hubungan antara amalan PSM, pertukaran pemimpin-ahli, dan penglibatan kerja staf akademik di universiti swasta Malaysia. Kajian ini juga menyiasat peranan pertukaran pemimpin-ahli sebagai moderator dalam hubungan antara amalan PSM dan penglibatan kerja. Tinjauan dalam talian telah dijalankan di dua universiti swasta dengan 196 kakitangan akademik sepenuh masa sebagai responden kajian, dan hipotesis telah diuji menggunakan analisis regresi. Keputusan menunjukkan hubungan yang signifikan antara amalan PSM, pertukaran pemimpin-ahli, dan penglibatan kerja. Penemuan lain menunjukkan bahawa pertukaran pemimpin-ahli menyederhanakan secara signifikan hubungan antara amalan PSM dan penglibatan kerja staf akademik. Kajian ini memberi sumbangan yang besar kepada literatur semasa tentang pengaruh amalan PSM dan pertukaran pemimpin-ahli terhadap penglibatan pekerja, khususnya dalam konteks Malaysia. Penemuan ini akan menjadi berharga kepada kakitangan sumber manusia dan pengurusan universiti dalam merancang inisiatif penglibatan pekerja.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abdul Khaliq Alvi, Mushtaq Ahmed Khan, Ali Adnan Ahmed & Mudassar Zulfiqar. (2014). A study of employee compensation and employee job engagement on Banks of Lahore, Pakistan. Sci.Int.(Lahore), 26(5),2411-2414.

Ahmed, I., Ismail, W.K.W. and Amin, S.M. (2014). Employee's reciprocation of organizational support and leader-member exchange. Management Research Review, 37(11), 930-943

Ahsan, N., Abdullah, Z. David, Y.G.F. & Alam, S.S. (2009). A study of job stress on job satisfaction among university staff in Malaysia: Empirical study. European Journal of Social Sciences, 8(1), 121-131.

Alima & Faizuniah. (2018). Mediating role of organisational commitment in the relationship between human resource management practices and employee engagement, does black box stage exist? International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 38(7/8), 606-636.

Altinay, L., Dai, Y. D., Chang, J., Lee, C. H., Zhuang, W. L., & Liu, Y. C. (2019). How to facilitate hotel employees' work engagement: The roles of leader-member exchange, role overload, and job security. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.

Anitha J. (2014). Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 63 (3 ), 308 – 323 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-01-2013-0008

Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S. (2013). Armstrong Hand Book of Human Resource Management Practice. 13th ed. London: Kogan Page.

Bailey, C., Madden, A., Alfes, K., & Fletcher, L. (2017). The meaning, antecedents and outcomes of employee engagement: A narrative synthesis. International Journal of Management Reviews, 19(1), 31–53. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijmr.12077.

Basarudin, N. A., Yeon, A. L., Yaacob, N., & Yusof, R. (2016). Faculty workload and employment benefits in public universities. International Review of Management and Marketing, 6(S7), 73–82.

Bauer, T.N. & Green, S.G. (1996). Development of leader-member exchange: A longitudinal test. Academy of Management Journal, 39 (6), 1538-1567.

Benjamin, B. & Ahmad, P. (2012). Motivational factors of employee retention and engagement in organisations. International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics, 1(6): 88-95.

Bowen, D. E., & Ostroff, C. (2004). Understanding HRM–firm performance linkages: The role of the "strength" of the HRM system. Academy of Management Review, 29(2), 203-221.

Boxall, P. & Purcell, P. (2008). Strategy and Human Resource Management, 2nd Ed., Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Breaugh, J. A. (2008). Employee recruitment: Current knowledge and important areas for future research. Human Resource Management Review, 18(3), 103–118. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2008.07.003

Chen, J.C., & Silverthorne, C. (2005). leadership effectiveness, leadership style, and employee readiness. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 26, 280−288.

Cheung, M.F. & Wu, W. (2012). Leader-member exchange and employee work outcomes in Chinese firms: The mediating role of job satisfaction. Asia Pacific Business Review, 18(1), 65-76.

Chin, W. S., & Mohd. Rasdi, R. (2014). Protean career development: Exploring the individuals, organizational and job-related factors. Asian Social Science, 10(21), 203–215. doi: 10.5539/ass. v10n21p203

Dansereau, F. (1995). A dyadic approach to leadership: Creating and nurturing this approach under fire. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(4), 479–490.

Dansereau, F., Graen, G.B., & Haga, W. (1975). A vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership in formal organizations. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance. 13, 46-78. doi: org/10.1016/0030-5073(75)90005-7

Daud, N. (2017). Job security and well-being among private workers in Malaysia. Journal of Technology Management and Business, 4(1).

de Villiers, J.R. & Stander, M.W. (2011). Psychological empowerment, work engagement, and turnover intention: The role of leader relations and role clarity in a financial institution. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 21(3), 405-412

Dhamija, P. (2012). E-Recruitment: A roadmap towards E-Human Resource Management. Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce, 3(2), 33–39.

Dorenkamp, I., & Ruhle, S. (2019). Work-life conflict, professional commitment, and job satisfaction among academics. The Journal of Higher Education, 90(1), 56–84. doi: 10.1080/00221546.2018.1484644

Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P.D. and Rhoades, L. (2001). Reciprocation of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 (1), 42-51.

Gerstner, C. R., & Day, D. V. (1997). Meta-analytic review of leader-member exchange theory: correlates and construct issues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 827-844.

Gomez -Mejia, L.R., Balkin, D.B., & Cardy, R.L. (2006). Managing Human Resources. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Graen, G., & Cashman, J. F. (1975). A role-making model of leadership in formal organizations: A developmental approach. Leadership frontiers, 143, 165. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press.

Graen, G. B., & Uhl‐Bien, M. (1995). Relationship‐based approach to leadership: Development of leader‐member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi‐level multi‐domain perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 6, 219–247. doi:10.1037/0021‐9010.63.2.206

Gruman, J.A. & Saks, A.M. (2011). Performance management and employee engagement. Human Resource Management Review, 21(2), 123-136.

Harris, A. (2015). Critical reflections on educational effectiveness and improvement in Asia. THF Workshop Reports: The HEAD Foundation.

He, J., Morrison, A. M., & Zhang, H. (2021). How High-Performance H.R. Practices and LMX affect employee engagement and creativity in hospitality. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 45(8), 1360-1382.

Herbert, G. H., Heneman III, H., & Judge, T. (2019). Staffing Organisations. McGraw-Hill.

Hertig, H. P. (2016). Universities, Rankings and The Dynamics of Global Higher Education: Perspectives from Asia, Europe and North America. Springer.

Ilies, R., Nahrgang, J.D., & Morgeson, F.P. (2007). Leader-member exchange and citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 269277. doi: org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.269.

Jameel, A. S., & Ahmad, A. R. (2020). The mediating role of job satisfaction between leadership style and performance of academic staff. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(4), 2399–2414.

Jiang, K., Lepak, D.P., Han, K., Hong, Y., Kim, A. & Winkler, A.L. (2012). Clarifying the construct of human resource systems: Relating human resource management to employee performance. Human Resource Management Review, 22(2), 73-85.

K. Alfes, A.d.Shantz, C.Truss & E.C.Soane. (2013). The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behavior: A moderated mediation model. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24 (2).

Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33 (4), 692– 724.

Kamder, D., & Van Dyne, L. (2007). The joint effects of personality and workplace social exchange relationships in predicting task performance and citizenship performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92.

Kenny, J. (2018). Re-empowering academics in a corporate culture: An exploration of workload and performativity in a university. Higher Education, 75(2), 365–380

Konermann, J. (2012). Teachers' Work Engagement: A deeper understanding of the role of job and personal resources in relationship to work engagement, its antecedents, and its outcomes. Universiteit Twente. https://doi.org/10.3990/1.9789036533027

Leana, C.R. (1986). Predictors and consequences of delegation. Academy of Management Journal, 29 (4), 754-774.

Lee, Y.K., Kim, S. and Kim, S.Y. (2014). The impact of internal branding on employee engagement and outcome variables in the hotel industry. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 19 (12), 1359-1380.

Li, X., Sanders, K. & Frenkel, S. (2012). How leader-member exchange, work engagement, and HRM consistency explain Chinese luxury hotel employees' job performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31 (4), 1059-1066.

Liden, R.C. and Maslyn, J.M. (1998). Multidimensionality of leader-member exchange: An empirical assessment through scale development. Journal of Management, 24 (1), 43-72.

Liden, R. C., Sparrowe, R. T., & Wayne, S. J. (1997). Leader-member Exchange Theory: The past and potential for the future. In G. Ferris (Ed.), Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management (pp. 47–119). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Luthans, F., Avey, J.B. and Patera, J.L. (2008). Experimental analysis of a web-based training intervention to develop positive psychological capital. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 7 (2), 209-221.

Macey, W.H., Schneider, B., Barbera, K.M. & Young, S.A. (2009). Employee Engagement: Tools for Analysis, Practice and Competitive Advantage, Wiley-Blackwell, New York, NY.

May, D. R., Gilson, R. L., & Harter, L. M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety, and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(1), 11-37.doi:10.1348/096317904322915892

McNamara, C. (2008). Employee benefits and compensation: Basics about employee motivation: Nuts-and-bolts guide to leadership and supervision in business. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Authenticity Consulting LLC.

Melin, M., Astvik, W., & Bernhard-Oettel, C. (2014). New work demands in higher education. A study of the relationship between excessive workload, coping strategies and subsequent health among academic staff. Quality in Higher Education, 20(3), 290–308. doi: 10.1080/13538322.2014.979547

Mendes, F., & Stander, M. W. (2011). Positive Organisation: The role of leader behavior in work engagement and retention. Journal of Industrial Psychology, 37 (1),1-13.

Messick D.M. (2004). On the psychological exchange between leaders and followers. In: Messick DM, Kramer RM (eds) The psychology of leadership. New perspectives and research. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, pp 81–96

Min-Seong Kim, Dong-Woo Koo. (2017). Linking LMX, engagement, innovative behavior, and job performance in hotel employees", International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29 (12), 3044-3062, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-06-2016-0319

Nagasangari. (2018). Factors affecting job expectation and job satisfaction among academic professionals in a private institution of higher learning in Selangor. Asian Journal of University Education, 14(2), 2.

Nor Arpizah Atan. (2016). Organizational culture, human resource practices, and employee engagement among academic staff of Universiti Utara Malaysia. Master Diss., School of Business Management, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia.

Onder, E. & Dogan, A. (2013). Ranking the strategies of human resource management during economic crisis period using analytic hierarchy process. Advances in Management & Applied Economics, 3 (5), 57-72.

Pfeffer, J. (1998). Seven practices of successful organizations. California Management Review, 40 (2), 96-124.

Rai, A., Ghosh, P., Chauhan, R. and Mehta, N.K. (2017). Influence of job characteristics on engagement: does support at work act as a moderator? International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 37 (Nos1/2), 86-105, available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSSP-10-2015-0106.

Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21 (7), 600-619.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293–315. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.248

Schaufeli, W. & Salanova, M. (2007). Work engagement. Managing social and ethical issues in organizations, 135, 177.

Schaufeli, W.B., Salanova, M., Gonzalez-Roma V., & Bakker, A.B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3 (1), 71–92.

Song, J. H., Lim, D. H., Kang, I. G., & Kim, W. (2014). Team performance in learning organizations: Mediating effect of employee engagement. The learning organization.

Sparrowe, R.T., & Liden, R.C (1997). Process and structure in leader-member exchange. Academy of Management Review, 22 (2), 522-524.

Sukirno, D. S., & Siengthai, S. (2011). Does participative decision-making affect lecturer performance in Higher Education? International Journal of Educational Management, 25(5), 494–508.

Sweet, S., & Moen, P. (2006). Advancing a career focus on work and family: Insights from the life course perspective.

Tayeb, M. (1997). Islamic revival in Asia and Human Resource Management. Employee Relations, 19 (4), 352-364.

Tong, D. Y. K. (2009). A Study of E-Recruitment Technology adoption in Malaysia. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 109(2), 281–300.

Truckenbrodt, Y. B. (2000). The relationship between leader-member exchange and commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Acquisition Review Quarterly: 233-244.

Upasna A. Agarwal, Sumita Datta, Stacy Blake‐Beard, & Shivganesh Bhargava. (2012). Linking LMX, innovative work behavior and turnover intentions: The mediating role of work engagement. Career Development International, 17 (3), 208-230. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620431211241063

Van De Voorde, K. & Beijer, S. (2015). The role of employee hr attributions in the relationship between high‐performance work systems and employee outcomes. Human Resource Management Journal, 25 (1), 62-78.

Van De Voorde, K., Paauwe, J. & Van Veldhoven, M. (2012). Employee well-being and the HRM–organizational performance relationship: A review of quantitative studies. International Journal of Management Reviews, 14 (4), 391-407.

Walumbwa, F.O., Cropanzano, R. & Goldman, B. M. (2011). How leader-member exchange influences effective work behaviors: Social exchange and internal-external efficacy perspectives. Personnel Psychology, 64, 739-770.

Wei, Y.C , Han, T.S & Hsu, I.C. (2010). High-performance H.R. practices and OCB: a cross-level investigation of a causal path. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21 (10), 1631-1648

Winkler, I. (2010). Leader-member exchange theory. In Contemporary leadership theories (pp. 47-53). Physica-Verlag HD.

Yousefi, M., & Abdullah, A. G. K. (2019). The impact of organisational stressors on job performance among academic staff. International Journal of Instruction, 12(3), 561–576. doi: 10.29333/iji.2019.12334a

Yukl, G. (2010). Leadership in Organisations (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Published

2022-06-30

How to Cite

Tengah, A. (2022). The Relationship between HRM Practices and Academic Staff Job Engagement: The Role of Leader-Member Exchange as Moderator: Hubungan antara Amalan Pengurusan Sumber Manusia dengan Penglibatan Kerja Staf Akademik: Peranan Pertukaran Ketua-Ahli sebagai Moderator. Journal of Management and Muamalah , 12(1), 74 - 93. Retrieved from https://jmm.kuis.edu.my/index.php/jurnal/article/view/121